comes from two Greek words:
Geo refers to the
Graphein means picture
examines, describes, and explains the Earth and the humans that occupy it.
attempts to explain the variations from place to place and how or why
places/people change over time.
is often called the spatial science because it is involved with recognizing,
analyzing and explaining the variations, similarities or differences in
phenomena on the Earths surface.
geography studies the natural environment, geography is very much a physical
geography also examines the human relationship to the environment, it is a
social science as well.
Geography encompasses the study of the processes and features that make up the
or Human Geography is the study of human activities and the results of those
WHERE AND WHY?
Geographers study the spatial aspects of human phenomena and then make maps
Economics, Population (Ethnicity)
then ask Why?
- the identification of a place using a precise accepted system.
Relative Location - the position of a
place in relation to that of other places or activities.
States and Russia
make a distinction between the site and situation of a place.
Site refers to
the physical characteristics and attributes of a place.
refers to the external relations of a place.
refers to the cardinal points of the compass (North, South, East and West)
refers to the relative aspects of direction and are locationally and culturally
North - Down South
West - Back East
refers to the spatial separation of two points as measured by some accepted
standard unit (feet; miles).
transforms linear measurements into something more meaningful (time).
Landscape is the physical environment unaffected by human activities.
Landscape is the natural landscape as modified by human activities bearing
the imprint of a culture group.
known as the Built Environment.
ATTRIBUTES OF PLACE
(People, Culture, Language, Religion)
Keep in mind
that the situation of a place can (and usually does) change with time.
- How easy or difficult is it to overcome the friction of distance
is the process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to
more distant points which may be directly or indirectly connected.
attempt to synthesize many phenomena to explain the whole and to organize
places as regions.
Regions verses Historic
have spatial extent.
4) Regions are
are areas of uniformity in one or a limited combination of physical or cultural
or Nodal Region is a spatial system defined by interactions or connections.
Region is more subjective, reflecting feelings and images.
globe is nearly a perfect model of our planet. It shows the relationships
between landforms and water, relative sizes of features, accurate compass
directions, and distances.
Globes have limitations
has two fixed reference points the north and south poles a great circle
the equator lies exactly between them.
the equator we can measure the angle north or south of it. This is called latitude
measured in degrees 0 degrees at the equator; 90 degrees at the poles.
great circle that goes through the north and south poles can be a line of
1884, by international agreement, Greenwich, England was chosen as the prime
meridian or 0° longitude.
is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian.
THE GLOBAL GRID
Parallels of latitude are always parallel.
Parallels are evenly spaced.
Meridians of longitude converge at the poles.
Meridians and parallels always cross at right angles.
map projection will maintain all of these properties.
Maps are tools
(models) to identify regions and to analyze their content.
The map has
become the essential and distinctive tool of the geographer.
MAPS AND MAP
· Relatively cheap to
· A lot of information a
picture is worth a thousand words
· Flexible able to show
all sorts of spatial data
· Never can depict the
Earth with complete accuracy unlike globes, every map distorts the earth in
three types of map projections including:
the science of map making.
globes are visual representations (models) of the earth.
SIZE AND SCALE
We can refer
to the size of an area as local, regional or global.
We can refer
to scale in the relative sense as:
Large scale - Small Areas, Greater
Small Scale - Large Areas, Little
Scale is the
relationship between size or length of a feature on a map and the same item on
the earths surface.
Scale can be
shown three different ways on maps:
Graphic or Bar Scale
arrangement of things on the Earths surface is called Spatial Distribution
which can be analyzed by the concepts of:
Density - the number of items
within a defined area.
Dispersion - the amount of spread
of a phenomenon.
Pattern - the arrangement of
things in an area.
HOW MAPS SHOW
several ways that data can be shown on maps including:
Geologic Survey (U.S.G.S.) Topographic Maps show both physical and cultural
features of the United States.
Urbanized Areas. (Shaded
Our lives and
activities are influenced by the friction of distance.
describes the decline of an activity with increasing distance from its point of
Territoriality is the emotional
attachment and the defense of home ground
is the zone of privacy and separation from others.
is the area within which people move freely on their rounds of regular
The size or
shape of an individuals activity space is dependent on:
of Mobility (Socio-economics)
Space is the location or places about which an individual has knowledge even if
the individual has not visited every part of their awareness space.
This is a
persons activity space and beyond based on knowledge; real or perceived.
The size or
shape of an individuals awareness space is dependent on:
Perception is the awareness we have, as individuals, of areas that are close by
or far away and the beliefs we hold about them.
perceptions are based on real information or not our behavior patterns will be
based on our perceptions.
Mental Maps are images about an
area that are individually developed based on information (real or perceived)