are honest with themselves,acknowledging what they do not know,recognizing their limitations, and beingwatchful of their own errors.
regard problems and controversial issues as exciting challenges.
strive for understanding, keep curiosityalive, remain patient with complexity andready to invest time to overcome confusion.
set aside personal preferences and basejudgments on evidence, deferring judgmentwhenever evidence is insufficient.
revise judgments when new evidence
are interested in other people's ideas, soare willing to read
and listen attentively,even when they tend to disagree with the other person.
practice restraint, controlling their feelingsrather than being
controlled by them, andthinking before acting.
pretend they know more than they do,ignore their limitations,
and assume theirviews are error-free.
regard problems and controversial issues as nuisances or threats
to their ego.
are impatient with complexity and thus would rather remain confused
than make the effort to understand.
base judgments on first impressions and gut reactions.
are unconcerned about the amount or quality of evidence and cling to earlier views steadfastly.
are preoccupied with self and their own
ignore the need for balance and give